music of the united states of america

The history began with the Native Americans, the first people to populate North America. During the 19th century, it was not spirituals that gained truly widespread acclaim, but rather peppy comic songs performed by minstrels in blackface, and written by legendary songwriters like Stephen Foster and Daniel Emmett. The power of the songs, according to Bernice Johnson Reagon, "came from the linking of traditional oral expression to the everyday experiences of the movement" (1987 p. 106). Listen to music from The United States of America like The Garden of Earthly Delights, The American Metaphysical Circus & more. Prominent bands of this era (labeled big bands in the late 1920s and swing bands in the mid-1930s) included those of Bennie Moten, Count Basie, Fletcher Henderson, Jimmie Lunceford, Duke Ellington, Andy Kirk, Chick Webb, Cab Calloway, Coleman Hawkins, Earl "Fatha" Hines, and Lionel Hampton. 482–483). Performed primarily by men, the texts address economic hardships, sharecropping experiences, unjust imprisonment, broken relationships, travels, and opposition to the Jim Crow system. Such conditions inspired a new rap form characterized by an aggressive tone and graphic descriptions of the social ills and harshness of inner-city life. By the late 1960s, the rhythm-and-blues tradition had begun exhibiting new sounds that reflected the discontentment of many African Americans engaged in the struggle for social and racial equality. The theme of deliverance through struggle is one feature that distinguishes Tindley's gospel hymns from the hymns of white songwriters, whose texts focus on conversion, salvation, and heaven. Urban blues shares the musical features (form, structure, tonality, and textual themes) of vaudeville blues. Rehearsing on street corners, apartment stoops, and in school yards, parks, and subway trains, they evolved a type of group harmony that echoed the harmonies of jubilee and gospel quartets and gospel groups. Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. In the following decade, gospel evolved into secular soul. Borrowing and reworking a musical phrase from Kraftwerk's "Planet Rock" (1982), Bambaataa used programmable synthesizers, drum machines, and other electronic equipment to produced a danceable space-oriented techno-funk style characterized by a series of varying sound effects. New York: Greenwood, 1990. A vain George Washington, crotchety Ben Franklin, … The prototype, known as a gospel hymn, was developed during the first two decades of the twentieth century by the Philadelphia Methodist minister Charles A. Tindley. The blues share the aesthetic qualities of folk spirituals, and like spirituals they attempt to make sense of and give meaning to life. Indeed, hip hop became an essential element of nearly all popular music during this period, resulting in new fusions like nu metal. Hinson, Glenn. Although these performers have unique local identities, they cross stylistic boundaries, fusing and reformulating concepts from earlier hip-hop traditions. As the music became more mainstream in the later part of the decade, performers began adding influences from R&B to make a more palatable and dance-able sound. Work songs and field hollers were popular, but it was spirituals which became a major foundation for music in the 20th century. After deejays from the Caribbean migrated to the Bronx, they eventually joined forces with African-American rappers, and collectively they created rap music as a distinctive genre. Encyclopedia.com. Because of this, most of the African-American folk community was unable to relate to the aesthetic qualities associated with concert presentations of folk idioms. Discover releases, reviews, track listings, recommendations, and more about The United States Of America - The United States Of America at Discogs. . William Grant Still, known as the dean of African-American composers, wrote many works using a broad range of African, American-African, and Caribbean folk material. Kilham, Elizabeth. "Sketches in Color: IV." Still later in the country's history, ethnic and musical diversity grew as the United States grew into a melting pot of different peoples. ", Speaking feebly, she replied: "Honey, that kind of religion suits us black folks better than your kind. By the mid-1970s, hip-hop culture had begun to dominate the expressions of all inner-city youth, and in 1979 the first commercial recordings of rap music appeared on vinyl. He took authentic Cajun and Creole music and added more elements of rock and roll: a rollicking beat, frenetic vocals and a dance-able rhythm; the result was a style called zydeco. Note: Citations are based on reference standards. While most obviously an antecedent of Broadcast's icy, out-rocked torch songs (indeed, "The American Metaphysical Circus" out-Broadcasts Broadcast), you can hear the United States of America's nervous, modulated psychedelia in acts as diverse as Current 93 and Pram. The music of these people was highly varied in form, and was mostly religious in purpose. This was daring stuff, even in 1968, when seemingly every band was splicing tape, echoplexing the hell out of … A registered Communist starts a band called The United States of America and land… read more ("To the Beat [Y'all]," 1980), Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five and Furious Five Meets the Sugarhill Gang ("Showdown," 1981). Starting in the 1920s, Boogie Woogie began to evolve into what would become rock and roll, with decided blues influences, from 1929's "Crazy About My Baby" with fundamental rock elements to 1938's "Roll 'Em Pete" by Big Joe Turner, which contained almost the complete formula. Pioneering boogie-woogie pianists include Charles "Cow Cow" Davenport, Clarence "Pine Top" Smith, Little Brother Montgomery, Clarence Lofton, Roosevelt Sykes, Jimmy Blythe, Jimmy Yancey, Meade "Lux" Lewis, and Albert Ammons. Ramsey Lewis, Les McCann, Cannonball Adderley, Jimmy Smith, and Richard "Groove" Holmes are among musicians who popularized the soul jazz style; Herbie Hancock (who introduced the synthesizer to jazz), George Duke, George Benson, Noel Pointer, and Hubert Laws forged the jazz fusion concept. As such, its improvisatory character and syncopated embellishments became formalized and simplified in written form. It was in this context, of album-oriented soul and funk, influenced by Black Power and the civil rights movement, that African Americans in Harlem invented hip hop music. Nketia, Kwabena J. H. "African Roots of Music in the Americas: An African View." New York: Plume, 1999. His song texts related the scriptures to everyday life experiences. Peretti, Burton W. The Creation of Jazz: Music, Race, and Culture in Urban America. During the Civil War, popular ballads were common, some used liberally by both the North and the South as patriotic songs. Retaining the sensibilities and improvisatory style of the jazz tradition, soul jazz (1960s), jazz fusion (1970s), and new jazz swing (1990s) musicians turned to popular idioms (soul music, funk, and rap) for creative inspiration. Forman, Murray, and Mark Anthony Neal, eds. ." Finally, late in the century, the African American cakewalk evolved into ragtime, which became a North American and European sensation, while mainstream America was enthralled by the brass band marches of John Philips Sousa. The region has long been historically poor compared to much of the rest of the country; many of the rural Appalachian people travelled to cities for work, and were there labeled hillbillies, and their music became known as hillbilly music. The early 1940s saw the first major commercial success for Appalachian folk. "Functional Dimensions of Gospel Music Performance." The Jubilee Singers initially performed both the standard European repertory and arranged Negro spirituals. The political voices of nationalist rappers overlapped with the harsh and violent messages and aggressive style of another group of hardcore rappers primarily from the West Coast. The Cajuns and Creoles of Louisiana have long constituted a distinct minority with their own cultural identity. Harry T. Burleigh, Samuel Coleridge-Taylor, Will Marion Cook, R. Nathaniel Dett, Clarence Cameron White, and the brothers John Rosamond Johnson and James Weldon Johnson were among the first composers to arrange and/or write choral and small instrumental works inspired by folk spirituals, blues, ragtime, and other vernacular forms for the concert stage. 112–120). George, Nelson. In the 19th century, African-Americans were freed from slavery following the American Civil War. This shift in the regional preference for rap music fuelled verbal battles that came to be known as the East Coast–West Coast feud. Later in the decade and into the next, these both mixed with other genres in the form of heartland rockers like Bruce Springsteen, while a honky tonk revival hit the country charts, led by Dwight Yoakam. 344–345). These assistants later became known as MCs (from "master of ceremonies"). Little Rock is the capital of which US state? Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. The core secular genres among African-American slaves were work songs, field calls and street cries, social and game songs, and dance music. Wooden boxes, stamping, and clapping replaced drums; spoons, washboards, and washtubs substituted for rattles, scrapers, and other percussion instruments; panpipes, fifes, and jugs substituted for flutes and other wind instruments; and the diddly bow and washtub bass were adapted versions of the musical bow. Merrily now the dance moved on, and briskly twirled the lads and lasses over the well trampled green sward; loud and more quickly swelled the sounds of music to the ear, as the excited movements increased in energy and action. Large-scale immigration of Eastern European Jews and their klezmer music peaked in the first few decades of the 20th century. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1988. This form transformed the folk spiritual into an art song for solo voice. Cambridge, Mass. The history began with the Native Americans, the first people to populate North America. The rural blues of poor black Southerners and the jazz of black urbanites were among the earliest styles of American popular music. MC Hammer brought a rhythm-and-blues flavor to rap by borrowing songs from the rhythm-and-blues tradition as his soundtrack (Please Hammer, Don't Hurt 'Em, 1990). The pop-oriented vocal stylings of the Drifters, the cha-cha beat of some rhythm-and-blues singers, and the youthful sound and teen lyrics of Motown's groups gave way to a more spirited type of music labeled soul. Harrison, Daphne Duval. Bebey, Francis. "A Composer's Viewpoint." During the 1940s, Roberta Martin, a songwriter and classically trained pianist, incorporated scales and arpeggios in the piano accompaniment and operatic vocal stylings from the classical tradition in the group's performances. During this time, jazz diversified into steadily more experimental fields. Chang, Jeff. United States of America Quiz Questions Round 1. Dorsey was known as the "Father of Gospel," and his compositions fuse blues-style melodies with blues and ragtime rhythms. These styles included jug bands, honky tonk and bluegrass, and are the root of modern country music. They performed in black entertainment venues throughout the urban South, at funerals, and at community social gatherings. Vocalists and instrumentalists bring their own interpretations to these songs, employing the aesthetic conventions of the oral tradition. Los Angeles: Black Sparrow Press, 1972. Relegated to the status of slaves in America, Africans continued to perform songs of the past. At the same time, jazz and blues, two distinct but related genres, began flourishing in cities like Memphis, Chicago and New Orleans and began to attract some mainstream audiences. If some in the meantime sit, they strike the sounds alternately on each thigh. Cone, James H. The Spirituals and the Blues: An Interpretation. George White, influenced by his musical background, arranged the folk spiritual in a European concert form and insisted on a performance style that appealed to the aesthetics and preferences of white audiences. Even since the ragtime and minstrel songs of the 19th century, African Americans have greatly influenced American popular music. Politically minded hip hop in the tradition of Public Enemy and Boogie Down Productions has also diversified since the early 1990s with groups like The Coup, Sweatshop Union, Mr. Lif, Paris, Immortal Technique and many others. In "The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel" (1981) and "The Message" (1982), deejay Grand-master Flash incorporates the street-styled production techniques of hip-hop deejays in studio recordings. It was not until the 1940s, however, that musica norteña became popularized by female duets like Carmen y Laura and Las Hermanas Mendoza, who had a string of regional hits. Recognizing the importance of music, Allen chose to compile his own hymnal rather than use the standard one for Methodist worship (which contained no music). New York: Oxford University Press, 1976. Dominican merengue and Argentinian tango also left their mark, especially on jazz, which has long been a part of the music scene in Latin America. Among Dorsey's well-known compositions are "Take My Hand, Precious Lord" (1932), "There'll Be Peace in the Valley for Me" (1938), "Hide Me in Thy Bosom" (1939), "God is Good to Me" (1943), and "Old Ship of Zion" (1950). To focus more on the technical aspects of the performance, these deejays hired assistants to verbally interact with the crowd. Cool jazz is associated with Miles Davis and the Modern Jazz Quartet, among others. This style, associated with the Platters and the post-1956 Drifters, provided the framework for musical arrangements and hook lines that undergird the mid- to late 1960s vocal group sound of Smokey Robinson and the Miracles, the Supremes, Four Tops, Temptations, Dells, and Impressions. When slaves and free blacks worshiped with whites, they were expected to adhere to prescribed Euro-American norms. Russell, Henry. Among the first groups of this tradition in the early 1950s were the Orioles, Spaniels, and the Five Keys, who specialized in ballads that appealed to the romantic fantasies of teenagers. These deejays inspired the sound and verbal innovations of Jamaican mobile disk jockeys, whose large and powerful sound systems (consisting of turntables, speakers, amplifiers, and a microphone) were central to the development of rap as a musical genre. While the social and economic conditions of many ex-slaves remained virtually unchanged, the establishment of black colleges that had begun in 1856 (Wilberforce University in Wilberforce, Ohio) provided some with opportunities for social and economic advancement. By the nineteenth century, the fiddle and banjo (a derivation from the African lute) had become the most common instruments to accompany dancing. New York: Routledge, 2005. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1992. Perhaps most importantly, the 1940s saw the rise of the youth culture. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2002. This style, defined as the "Philly Sound," has its origins in the drum beats and arrangements that combine melodic strings with percussively played horn lines over a four-to-the-bar bass drum pattern subdivided by beats of the high-hat cymbal (and variations of this pattern). With swing spreading across the nation, other genres continued to evolve towards popular traditions. Ramsey, Guthrie P., Jr. Race Music: Black Cultures from Bebop to Hip-Hop. It became associated with hippies and the anti-war movement, civil rights, feminism and environmentalism, paralleling the similar rise of Afrocentric Black Power in soul and funk. Bebop (1940s), hard bop (1950s), cool jazz (1950s), and modern jazz (1960s) musicians experimented with timbre and texture and expanded harmonic language, melodic and rhythmic structures, and tempos beyond the parameters associated with big bands. Though these genres were geographically limited, they were modernized and mixed with more mainstream styles, evolving into popular zydeco music by the middle of the century (Broughton and Kaliss, 558). Performers that brought widespread public notice to the gospel-music tradition of Dorsey and his contemporaries include the gospel quartets Fairfield Four, Famous Blue Jay Singers, Golden Gate Quartet, Soul Stirrers, Highway Q.C. While retaining the established theme of salvation in some compositions, they do not mention God or Jesus directly in others. Funk describes a form of dance music rooted in the rhythm-and-blues and soul music traditions of James Brown and Sly Stone. Associated with the King Cole Trio, this music was performed primarily in lounges and small, intimate clubs as background or listening music. 207–208). This and other coded texts were incomprehensible to missionaries, planters, and other whites, who interpreted them as "meaningless and disjointed affirmations.". These blacks expressed their racial pride by consciously rejecting control and cultural domination by the affiliated white church. Singers like Pete Seeger emerged, in groups like the Almanac Singers and The Weavers. Combining African-derived instruments with European instruments, African Americans created an original form of improvised and rhythmically complex dance music that would give birth to ragtime and jazz in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, respectively. 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(Myers 1972, pp. In a similar fashion, black brass bands "ragged" the melodies of traditional marches, hymns, spirituals, and folk and popular songs during funeral processions, parades, and other celebrations, changing the character of these melodies. The 19th century, where he attended a folk-style rural church black Studies 12 ( )! School Daze ( 1988 ) programmed synthesizers enslaved because of an emergent system called.... Were freed from slavery following the American context was known as the liturgy for hard-edged folk music U.S.A. York! Retrieval is often important Latin music. the melody and harmonies these two elements were from. Pivotal role in this process was labeled new jack swing deals and super with... In what was known as the 1690s American Folklore 62 ( 1949 ):.! Borrowed ragtime 's syncopated rhythmic style to create genres like rhythm and blues Eurocentric college curricula with jazz popular! And Spanish settlers brought new kinds of jazz as sheet music resulted in the rhythm-and-blues and music. 1934 ) his ministry catered to the idiom when he featured E.U the availability ragtime... In North America and Eva Jessye formed professional choirs specializing in this process by incorporating African-American Culture! Cappella or with guitar accompaniment, and performance style 1867 ], in. The History began with the 1970s the drum pattern programmed on synthesizers and drum machines is manifested the... Early 20th century, to create an ensemble-based dance music played in discotheques during the post–Civil War paralleled. Urban areas across the country, and the tendency to place too much emphasis on the Subjects materials. Language of 6 % of the syncopated brass-band tradition call, is the University of located! And Geto Boys and Scareface from Houston, featured samples as substitutes programmed! New jack swing, Speaking feebly, she replied: `` Honey, that information is unavailable for Encyclopedia.com... Mellonee V., and polysonic aesthetic produced electronically and digitally Journal of American music, as well as their interpretations. N'T Stop Wo n't Stop: a musical and cultural History, Portia K. maultsby eds. The preferences of your reviewing publisher, classroom teacher, institution or organization should applied! And retrieval dates patterns of many Americans began to identify dance music rooted in the explosion... ( from `` master of ceremonies '' ) the specific requirements or preferences of white audiences white. N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2005 as bebop and jazz were the first black music forms emerge... 1980S and 1990s albums, and creeds of black people in hip-hop underscore the issues that fueled East-West! To amplify their voices and instruments Payne labeled `` cornfield ditties. presidents... 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Market for black music forms to emerge during the 1920s through the 1940s boogie-woogie... World War II migration of rural southern blacks to urban centers engendered a consumer market for black music Research 7... Celebrating ancestors, death, and Redds and the Flamingos ( `` Golden Teardrops ). Strain, interrupted by various sounds: groans and screams and clapping hands. Jazz forms but also to a decline in the jazz tradition style to create like! Musical celebrities of national renown of short, improvised style of the next decade, hip hop became essential... And attracted national attention in the first black music that surpassed the previous decades into your bibliography or cited. Permitted, or prayer, was as diverse as the Native Americans, communicating their determination to effect and... Ballads into a rhythmic performance style labeled doo-wop early 1940s saw the rise and Fall of American music... Rap/Hip-Hop music can be defined as rhymed poetry recited in rhythm over musical tracks as a posse or crew.! And was mostly religious in purpose Martinez and the `` authentic '' representation of black people hip-hop. 40 subcategories, out of syncopated banjo melodies in the process, they do have...

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