gustav iii enlightenment

He himself wrote plays, and in 1786 he collaborated with Johan Kellgren on the opera Gustaf Wasa. Corrections? Brought about an end to the corrupted rule of the Riksdag. In 1792 he was mortally wounded by a gunshot in the lower back during a masquerade ball as part of an aristocratic-parliamentary coup attempt, but managed to assume command and quell the uprising before succumbing to sepsis 13 days later, a period during which he received apologies from many of his political enemies. King Gustav was especially fond of him and suffered obvious and severe mental and physical reactions to the baby's illness and death. He seized control of the kingdom through a coup in 1772, and his 1789 ‘Union and Security Act’ took away the rest of the powers of the Swedish parliament. In return, Gustav abolished most of the old privileges of the nobility. Because of the King turning backwards the shot went in at an angle from the third lumbar vertebrae towards the hip region. French, military career. With many of them he maintained a lifelong correspondence. She also wrote plays, stories, and memoirs. The poor law was amended and limited religious liberty was proclaimed for both Roman Catholics and Jews. The concept originated during the Enlightenment period in the 18th and into the early 19th centuries. [citation needed]. [12] When his second son was born, there was no doubt as to his legitimacy, and the boy was strong and healthy. Gustav III Source: Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment Author(s): Marie-Christine Skuncke (1746–1792), King of Sweden (reigned 1771–1792). Then, after the brief Diet of Gävle on 22 January – 24 February 1792, he fell victim to a widespread political conspiracy among his aristocratic enemies.[1]. He stressed the need for all parties to sacrifice their animosities for the common good, and volunteered, as "the first citizen of a free people," to be the mediator between the contending factions. During dinner, he received an anonymous letter that described a threat to his life (written by the colonel of the Life guards Carl Pontus Lilliehorn), but, as the king had received numerous threatening letters in the past, he chose to ignore it. etc. Criminal justice became more lenient, the death penalty was restricted to a relatively short list of crimes (including murder), and torture was abolished in order to gain confessions, although the "strict death penalty", with torture-like corporal punishment preceding the execution, was maintained. A song was composed by Carl Michael Bellman called the "Toast to King Gustav!". Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. The Enlightenment's most important idea was that all people can reason and think for themselves. He was educated by Carl Gustav Tessin and Karl Scheffer, two of Sweden's more eminent statesmen, and by … Gustav, the eldest son of King Adolf Fredrik, was an intelligent and cultured advocate of the Enlightenment. Gustav next aimed at forming a league of princes against the revolutionary government in France,[1] and subordinated every other consideration to this goal. On his way home, Gustav paid a short visit to his uncle, Frederick the Great, at Potsdam. Nonetheless, his successful leadership in the Battle of Svensksund averted a complete military defeat and signified that Swedish military might was to be countenanced. His After some debate, it was agreed that Kristianstad should openly declare against the government a few days after the Finnish revolt had begun. Even those who were prepared to acquiesce in the change by no means liked it. He was the eldest son of Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden[1] and Queen Louise Ulrika (a sister of King Frederick the Great of Prussia), and a first cousin of Empress Catherine the Great of Russia by reason of their common descent from Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin, and his wife Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach. On the whole, Gustav cannot be said to have been well educated, but he read widely; there was scarcely a French author of his day with whose works he was not intimately acquainted. [11], Professor Erik Lönnroth of the Swedish Academy, who described the assistance provided by Munck, asserted that there is no factual basis for the assumption that Gustav III was homosexual. King Gustav III (1746–1792) came to the throne in 1771, and in 1772 led a coup d'état, with French support, that established him as an "enlightened despot," who ruled at will. But in August 1772 he seized effective power of the government and established a new constitution which, replacing that of 1720, increased the crown’s powers at the expense of the Riksdag. Gustav also introduced new national economic policies. Gustav III was King of Sweden from 1771 until his assassination in 1792. Gustav III's war against Russia and his implementation of the Union and Security Act of 1789 helped increase hatred against the king which had been growing among the nobility ever since the coup d'état of 1772. Have courage to use your own intelligence! [1] He was placed under the tutelage of Hedvig Elisabet Strömfelt until the age of five, then educated under the care of two governors who were among the most eminent Swedish statesmen of the day: Carl Gustaf Tessin and Carl Fredrik Scheffer. Duke Charles (Karl), the eldest of the king's brothers, would thereupon be forced to mobilize the garrisons of all the southern fortresses hastily, ostensibly to crush the revolt at Kristianstad, but on arriving in front of the fortress, he was to make common cause with the rebels and march upon the capital from the south while Sprengtporten attacked it simultaneously from the east. Confidential agents from the Swedish court had already prepared the way for him, and the Duke of Choiseul, the retired Chief Minister, resolved to discuss with him the best method of bringing about a revolution in France's ally, Sweden. It is widely agreed that the contribution and dedication of Gustav III to the performing arts in Sweden, notably the building of the theatre houses and the founding of a national theatre company, has been crucial to the Swedish culture. During his reign (1771-1792 AD), the ideas of Enlightenment reached Sweden and changed society. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. People from the King's lifeguard stood some meters away. Henceforth he showed a growing determination to rule without a parliament, a cautious and gradual passage from semi-constitutionalism to semi-absolutism. Thus, when the king summoned the estates to assemble at Stockholm on 3 September 1778, he could give a highly positive account of his six years' stewardship. 17-1 26 terms. The Riksdag was mainly run by the Swedish nobility in the Secret Committee, a group that dealt with finances and foreign affairs. [21], The King twitched and said “ai” without falling. Frederick bluntly informed his nephew that, in concert with Russia and Denmark, he had guaranteed the integrity of the existing Swedish constitution; he advised the young monarch to play the part of mediator and abstain from violence. Due to the crowd, Pollet receded behind the King, who bent backwards to talk to Pollet. Gustav worked towards reform in the same direction as other contemporary sovereigns of the Age of Enlightenment. On the stage several masked men – some witnesses talked of 20 or 30 men – made it impossible for the king to proceed. Largo" and more. The Gustavian autocracy thus survived until 1809, when his son was ousted in another coup d'état, which definitively established parliament as the dominant political power. Gustav thereupon resolved to strike the decisive blow without waiting for Sprengtporten's arrival. Gustav took an active part in every department of business, but relied heavily on extra-official counsellors of his own choosing rather than upon the Privy Council of Sweden. Gustav even designed and popularized a Swedish national costume, which was in general use among the upper classes from 1778 until his death (and it is still worn by the ladies of the court on state occasions). Napoleon I, France . Notable opera composers under Gustav's reign were three artists originally from Germany: Johann Gottlieb Naumann, Georg Joseph Vogler and Joseph Martin Kraus. In 1766 he married Sofia Magdalena, daughter of King Frederick V of Denmark. In the following years Gustav III introduced a number of enlightened reforms: torture as an instrument of legal investigation was abolished; freedom of the press was granted; the poor law was amended; religious toleration was accorded; free trade was promoted; the navy was strengthened; and in 1777 a comprehensive currency reform was carried out. Gustav, the eldest son of King Adolf Fredrik, was an intelligent and cultured advocate of the Enlightenment. It appeared on the point of being absorbed into the Northern Accord sought by the Russian vice-chancellor, Count Nikita Panin. On 6 August 1772, Toll succeeded in winning the fortress of Kristianstad by sheer bluff, and on 16 August, Sprengtporten succeeded in surprising Sveaborg, but contrary winds prevented him from crossing to Stockholm. "There was no room for a single question during the whole session.". Gustav III. In 1772 he founded the Royal Order of Vasa to acknowledge and reward those Swedes who had contributed to advances in the fields of agriculture, mining and commerce. Gustav then founded a separate entity for spoken drama, the Royal Dramatic Theatre, with a new building behind the Royal Swedish Opera house. Assign a role to the hostess, Madame Geoffrin. The activity of the Swedish Enlightenment occurred during—and owed much to—the reign (1771–92) of King Gustav III. Gustav III is mainly remembered for his passion for arts, literature, theatre and music. His profound knowledge of popular assemblies enabled him, alone among contemporary sovereigns, to gauge the scope of the French Revolution accurately from the first. Gustav had actively promoted the Swedish economy, and his economic ideas and policies were greatly influenced by mercantilism. (Charles III of Spain, Catherine II of Russia, Gustav III of Sweden, Joseph I of Portugal) He was hampered, however, by financial restrictions and lack of support from the other European Powers. He acted promptly. In 1766 he married Sofia Magdalena, daughter of King Frederick V of Denmark. He was betrothed to Princess Sophia Magdalene of Denmark when he was five, and married her fifteen years later, in 1766. By 1792, King Gustav III of Sweden had amassed an enormous amount of personal power, displacing the old constitutional monarchy and forming an absolutist system based on the principles of the Enlightenment. In embarking on a war of aggression without the consent of the estates, Gustav violated his own constitution of 1772, which led to a serious mutiny, the Anjala Conspiracy, among his aristocratic officers in Finland. Sprengtporten lay weather-bound in Finland, Toll was 800 kilometres (500 miles) away, the Hat leaders were in hiding. At first, the venture seemed headed for disaster before the Swedes successfully broke a blockade by the Russian fleet at the Battle of Svensksund on 9 July 1790. They are greatly upset to see this not happening at the last masquerade but they rejoice at the tidings of seeing that there will be a new one today. Swedish military forces were engaged by the thousands on the side of the colonists,[4] largely through the French expedition force. Denmark declared war in support of its Russian ally, but was soon persuaded to sign a ceasefire through British and Prussian diplomacy. Gustav was first impressed by Sophia Magdalena's beauty, but her silent nature made her a disappointment in court life. At first he sought to gain Russian support to acquire Norway from Denmark. Born on Jan. 24, 1746, Gustavus III was the eldest son of Adolphus Frederick, an ineffectual king of Sweden, and Louisa Ulrika, the sister of Frederick the Great of Prussia. Come, let us go down. (I am wounded. Updates? Even people with very little power or money should have the same rights as the rich and powerful to help create the societ… The king's one great economic blunder[citation needed] was the attempt to make the sale of alcohol a government monopoly, which clearly infringed upon the privileges of the estates[citation needed]. The Enlightenment (Age of Reason) 1600s-1700s 8 terms. Ap Euro Ch. Earlier in foreign affairs, however, and privately, Gustav had shown considerable interest in the American Revolution and had this to say about it in October 1776: The Riksdag of 1786 marks a turning-point in Gustav's history. A form of government in the 18th century in which absolute monarchs pursued legal, social, and educational reforms inspired by the Enlightenment. The poets and the philosophers paid him enthusiastic homage, and distinguished women testified to his superlative merits. During the Age of Enlightenment, as more and more people began to use reason, some began to disagree with the idea that God created the world. Measures were also taken to reform the administration and judicial procedures. From 4 February to 25 March 1771, Gustav was in Paris, where he carried both the court and the city by storm. On the evening of 18 August, all the officers whom he thought he could trust received secret instructions to assemble in the great square facing the arsenal on the following morning. This was a very new idea at the time. The consequence was that nearly all the royal propositions were either rejected outright or so modified that Gustav himself withdrew them. It was under King Gustav III that Sweden gained the small Caribbean island of Saint-Barthélemy from France in 1785 (in exchange for French trading rights in Gothenburg). Only eight months before, Catherine had declared that "the odious and revolting aggression" of the king of Sweden would be "forgiven" only if he "testified his repentance" by agreeing to a peace granting a general and unlimited amnesty to all his rebels and consenting to a guarantee by the Swedish Riksdag for the observance of peace in the future ("as it would be imprudent to confide in his good faith alone"). The king’s amiability and efficient rule were not enough to satisfy his critics, so he turned from the frustrations of domestic affairs to an aggressive foreign policy. For all his gentleness, he guarded the royal prerogative fiercely and plainly showed that he would continue to do so. Enlightened absolutism (also called enlightened despotism or enlightened absolutist) refers to the conduct and policies of European absolute monarchs during the 18th and early 19th centuries who were influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment, espousing them to enhance their power. Although he may be charged with many foibles and extravagances, Gustav III is regarded one of the leading sovereigns of the 18th century for patronage of the arts. His influence was so profound that an English traveler, upon seeing a Grecian temple in the far north, noted that its “magnificence and taste, like that monarch … [have] nothing in common with the country in which it has arisen.” He was a patron of the arts and attracted the best writers of the time to his court; by founding the Swedish Academy (1786) he gave them official status. The Riksdag was quite obsequious towards the king. In 1775, free trade in grain was promoted and several oppressive export tolls were abolished. Returning to Sweden, Gustav aroused popular indignation against the mutinous aristocratic officers. Capitalizing on the powerful anti-aristocratic passions thus aroused, Gustav summoned a Riksdag early in 1789, at which he put through an Act of Union and Security on 17 February 1789 with the backing of the three lower estates. The Riksdag Gustav III convened in 1778 proved tractable, but his reforms eventually aroused dissatisfaction among the nobility. carinaariel. Regained the government under the control of the monarchy in a coup d’etat. [20], Anckarström stood at the entrance to the corridor holding a knife in his left hand and carrying one pistol in his left inner pocket and another pistol in his right back pocket. His visit to the French capital was, however, no mere pleasure trip; it was also a political mission. The Riksdag of 1786 rejected most of Gustav’s reforming policies. On the evening of 20 August, heralds roamed the streets proclaiming that the estates were to meet at the palace on the following day; every deputy absenting himself would be regarded as the enemy of his country and his king. Napoleon. Following the uprising against the French monarchy in 1789, Gustav pursued an alliance of princes aimed at crushing the insurrection and re-instating his French counterpart, King Louis XVI, offering Swedish military assistance as well as his leadership. Criminal justice became more lenient, the death penalty was restricted to a relatively short list of crimes (including murder), and torture was abolished in order to gain confessions, although the "strict death penalty", with torture-like corporal punishment preceding the execution, was maintained. Pray, allow an unknown whose pen is guided by tactfulness and the voice of conscience, dare take the liberty to inform You, with all possible sincerity, that certain individuals exist, both in the Provinces and here in the City, that only breathe hatred and revenge against You; indeed to the extreme of wanting to shorten Your days, through murder. [13] The spring of 1783 has been considered a turning point in the king's personality. 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